Reading & Writing Curriculum Guidelines 

How students learn and what teachers do.


How students learn 
 What teachers do 
  • Imitate
  • Model
  • Demonstrate
  • Identify and face challenges and overcome problems
  • Set instructional objectives based on students’ identified need/s
  • Plan activities with appropriate kinds and levels of challenge
  • Provide opportunities for students to solve problems
  • Understand and help set learning goals for tasks
  • Help students to understand the learning goals of tasks
  • Build shared goals
  • Make connections
  • Show students how to activate their prior knowledge
  • Help students to see relationships between what they know and what they are learning
  • Monitor to ensure that students make connections
  • Practise
  • Provide opportunities for practice through text-based activities
  • Monitor learning and plan next steps
  • Develop the ability to apply their learning and transfer it to new contexts
  • Plan opportunities for students to apply learning
  • Show students how to use their learning in new contexts
  • Monitor this transfer
  • Respond to and seek feedback
  • Give timely appropriate feedback
  • Provide opportunities for students to act on the feedback
  • Reflect on and regulate their learning
  • Help students to build metacognitive awareness
  • Encourage students to evaluate and reflect critically on their learning


Overall Teacher Judgment (OTJ)

National Standards are gone but teachers still make Overall Teacher Judgments (OTJs) about the achievement level of students. While we use a range of standardized assessments to assist us with detecting the needs of students, any one assessment should not be used as the basis for decisions. Rather the OTJ should be based on a range of evidence from the student’s work/learning being done in class, formative assessment evidence and standardized assessments. Overall teacher judgments of achievement and progress involve combining information from a variety of sources, using a range of approaches. Evidence may be gathered through the following three ways: Conversing with the student to find out what they know, understand and can do. Observing the process a student uses. Gathering the results from formal assessments, including standardized tools. This 'triangulation' of information increases the dependability of the overall teacher judgment. See diagram below for more detail:


Kawaha Point School
Aquarius Drive
Rotorua, New Zealand
Ph: 07 348 5864
Fax: 07 349 2581